Esophageal atresia is a congenital medical condition (birth defect) that affects the alimentary tract. It causes the esophagus to end in a blind-ended pouch rather. Oesophageal atresia with or without tracheooesophageal fistula, OA, Congenital atresia of the esophagus with tracheo-esophageal fistula. Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is the most common congenital anomaly of the esophagus. The improvement of survival.

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Role of sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. This technique should only be employed after four months of life to ensure adequate vascularization of the colon[ 3658 ]. This can be a sign of EA or other blockage of the baby’s digestive tract. Efficacy of postoperative elective ventilatory support for leakage protection in primary anastomosis of congenital esophageal atresia. The ideal surgical treatment for patients with long-gap EA has not been determined, and the topic is still very controversial.

The clinical treatment of GER includes dietary modification, adequate positioning of the infant and medication[ 5 ].

Esophageal atresia – Wikipedia

Postoperative management When the oesophageal anastomosis has been performed under tension, the infant is electively paralysed and mechanically ventilated for five days postoperatively. Suboptimal results with these strategies have led to the development of techniques that attempt to elongate the esophagus sufficiently to bridge the gap. Frothy, white bubbles in the mouth Coughing or choking when feeding Vomiting Blue color of the skin cyanosisespecially when the baby is feeding Difficulty breathing Very round, full abdomen Other congenital malformations might be present, such as the ones mentioned in the previous section.

N Engl J Med. A failure in the expression of these genes or in the apoptotic programs that they regulate is responsible for EA. Dorsoventral patterning in oesophageal atresia with tracheo-oesophageal fistula: The cumulative incidence of significant gastrooesophageal reflux in patients ssofagus oesophageal atresia with a distal fistula–a systematic clinical, pH-metric, and endoscopic follow-up study.

Swallowing food or liquids may be difficult due to problems with the normal esoffagus of foods and liquids down the esophagus peristalsisand scarring that can occur in the esophagus after surgery as the wounds heal, which can partially block the passage of foods. This sequence of events can be minimised by positioning the end of the endotracheal tube distal to entry of the tracheooesophageal fistula and by applying gentle low pressure ventilation.


When the infant can swallow saliva, oral feeding may be started. The diagnosis of primary and recurrent tracheoesophageal fistulas: Major cardiac anomaly was defined as either cyanotic congenital heart disease that required palliative or corrective surgery or non-cyanotic heart anomaly that required medical or surgical treatment for cardiac failure.

Moreover, an upper pouch sign may not be detected even with specific examination[ 7 ]. In many of these infants the anomaly was misdiagnosed and managed as proximal atresia and distal fistula. However, a number of authors do not agree with this procedure[ 4748 ]. Use of transanastomotic feeding tubes during esophageal atresia repair. Pre- and postnatal diagnosis and outcome of fetuses and neonates with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula.

Esophageal atresia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Aortopexy for tracheomalacia in oesophageal anomalies. The blind upper oesophageal pouch is identified high up in the mediastinum aided by the anaesthetist applying pressure on the oro- or naso-oesophageal tube. If EA is suspected, the health care atresiw will try to pass a small feeding tube through the infant’s mouth or nose into the stomach.

However, epithelial cell proliferation and potential incorporation of the stent into the trachea can make subsequent removal dangerous.

Embryology The mechanism that underlie tracheooesophageal malformations are still unclear, however, the development of reproducible animal models of these anomalies has allowed detailed analysis of the various stages of faulty organogenesis. Quality of life in adult survivors of correction of esophageal atresia.

Oesophageal atresia

The surgery of infancy and chilhood. In April Annalise Dapo became the first patient in the United States to have their esophageal atresia corrected using magnets.

The traditional method of dealing with this sequence of events was to perform an emergency gastrostomy. Congenital atresia of the oesophagus: At surgery it is useful to define the oesophagus above and below the site of the fistula and to insert stay sutures at both the oesophageal and tracheal ends of the fistula before it is divided.

The creation of a jejunal graft involves a cross-sectional cut proximal to the ligament of Treitz, separating the first two mesenteric arteries from the peripheral arch. In OA the tube will not progress beyond 10 cm from the mouth confirmation is by plain X-ray of the chest and abdomen.


The type of surgery depends on the following: The occurrence of stenosis of the anastomosis is more common in patients with long-gap EA, which is thought to be due to the fact that the repair is under tension[ 74859 ]. The vast majority of cases are sporadic, although the incidence is higher in twins. The diagnosis may be suspected on the plain chest radiograph which shows an air oesophagogram. Loading Stack – 0 images remaining.

Moreover, the high mortality of very low birth weight patients, patients with severe cardiac malformation and of infants with long-gap defects has significantly decreased.

Pediatric Tracheoesophageal Fistula and Esophageal Atresia

The aetiology of oesophageal atresia is likely to be multifactorial and remains unknown. This means it occurs before birth. Additional long-term morbidities include recurrent respiratory infections, tracheomalacia, dysphagia and choking episodes. Anastomotic leaks are considered minor or major.

The infant may become cyanotic turn bluish due to lack of oxygen and may stop breathing as the overflow of fluid from the atresi pouch is aspirated sucked into the trachea.

The diagnosis is often made following a contrast esophagram or an upper gastrointestinal series by observing the fistula at the lower cervical esophagus or by bronchoscopy.

The diagnosis is made primarily through esophagoscopy, a 24 h pH probe, intraluminal impedance or a contrast swallow[ 272 ]. Lessons I have learned in a year experience.

Oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. At the end of the procedure, contrast is introduced into the oesophagus to ensure that aresia has been no perforation and to establish the effectiveness of the dilatation.

The sutures afresia wide gap cases should be placed untied in the posterior half of the anastomosis and gently but firmly brought together so as to distribute the tension equally over a larger area. Approximately one-half of all babies with TE fistula or esophageal atresia have another birth defect.