A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language and Language Learning) [J.C. Catford] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. J. C. Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistics – pages. Get this from a library! A linguistic theory of translation, by j.c. catford.. [J c Catford].
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The Chinese graphological unit — the character — is directly convertible to a lexical or grammatical unit of the language.
The letter B is thus the English translitera- tion-equivalent of the Russian 6. The total co-text will supply information which the translator will use in coming to a decision, but it is difficult to define functional relevance in general terms. Le present Manuel s’ adresse a. Ignoring this we can translate b I as II, b as I if lower-case were used, the equivalents would be bl and 1.
In these examples tone-group boundaries are marked byfoot-boundaries bythe initial syllable of the tonic by underlining. Literal 3 II pleut a verse.
Once again the grammatical item this has a partially lexical translation equivalent ce mot. Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your J.c.catfoed proxy server Configure custom proxy use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy.
The contrasts are of two tgeory i contrasts of tone, i.
Linguistic Theory 1 2 Translation: Thus, to find the French textual equivalent of the English text My son is six, we ask a competent translator trwnslation put this into the TL, French. The first foot What did you and the last foot yesterday each consist of three syllables: It looks, therefore, as if i.c.catford of material aspects of the institution are less important linguisticc equivalence in its major personal or social function washing the body and soaking in hot water in promoting translatability.
This is the homme I voi-ed and This is the rajul I shuf-ed. This is neces- sarily the case, since, following Firth, we define meaning as the total network of relations entered into by any linguistic form — text, item-in-text, structure, element of structure, class, term in system— or whatever it may be.
Theofy this latter case, the obvious English equivalent bathroom would probably be evaluated by any trans- lator as inappropriate. The language itself is, however, the organiza- tion or patterning which language-behaviour implicitly imposes on these two kinds of substance — language is form, not substance.
A Linguistic Theory of Translation by J.C. Catford
Grapho- logical translation is sometimes practised deliberately, for special typographic effects, and also occurs involuntarily in the per- formance of persons writing a foreign language. This casts doubt on the advisability of setting up any formal correspondence between the particular terms of the English and French article- systems. The relation- ship of the English and Burushaski lexical items to elements in the situation can be tabulated as follows: It is convenient, particularly in connection with translation, to regard such a dialect as unmarked.
It rests on the SL items prislas verxuNiznego, and these illustrate all three of the causes of linguistic untranslatability referred to above. The fact that each of these tone-groups is a carrier of a meaningful pattern is shown by the possibility of occurrence of units of a linuistic type which differ only in that the pitch-pattern which they carry is meaningfully different, thus: The Pedagogue as Translator in the Classroom.
Otets u men ‘a byl lingguistic. Literal 3 Never mind about them! But sequence is relevant in English and we therefore count it as a feature of the structure, and say that, j.c.catflrd this respect, too, structure-shift occurs in the translation. This is what one might expect in the case of a pair of languages which are both typologically and genetically very different; more precisely, the divergence shown here may be taken to be a symptom of typological difference, theody parallels genetic unrelatedness.
He was unhesitatingly served j.c.catfotd the type required. Exponence is related to rank in the sense that q element of structure of a unit at one rank is expounded by — or has as its exponent — a unit or units of the rank next below.
The exponent of P, if present, is one or more foot preceding the tonic, and carrying one of a restricted range of pretonic intonation contours.
Linguistic Theory of Translation
We may repeat this process for any portion of the full text — asking, for instance, for the French equivalent of 1 It should be noted that this, and almost all other examples in this paper, are decontextualized texts: We stated in 1. Both hteory these— vocal movements, and actual events, etc.
But, on the second occasion, the interpreter translates a-yas by my brother. But the Finnish and the English institutions are certainly different, and a sauna is not always a separate building — it may be a room in a house, hotel, or ship for instance.
Such incompatibilities may have an effect on trans- lation. The distinction between transliteration and transcription is important, and often misunderstood. By text we mean any stretch of language, spoken or written, which is under discussion. The present volume is not primarily concerned with any of these special problems, but rather with the analysis of what translation is. It is tempting, then, to set up a formal correspondence between the terms of the systems as in this table: In Ngps, however, we may have rank-shifted clauses and rank-shifted groups as exponents, e.
A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics – J. C. Catford – Google Books
Categories, Translation, and Linguistic Theory. Translations occur in which it looks, at first sight, as if a phonological item is being translated by a grammatical item or items: We will show how this applies in restricted translation in Chapters 8 and 9. In the Ngp the man who came to dinner.
It proposes general categories to which we can assign our observations of particular instances of translation, and it shows how these categories relate to one another. It provides categories which are applicable in all branches of linguistic science.
These two examples, in fact, provide us with a commutation which establishes the following translation equivalences: Jan 26, Zuzana rated it it was ok Shelves: SPUTNIK In transliteration, SL graphological units are replaced by TL graphological units; but these are not translation equivalents, since they are not selected on the basis of relationship to the same graphic substance.
At one or more levels of language there may be simple replacement, by non- equivalent TL material: X y z Form: