Psychological Reactance. A Theory of Freedom and Control. Book • Authors: Sharon S. Brehm and Jack W. Brehm. Browse book content. About the book. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, Pages PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. Jack W. Brehm, University. Abstract. Since Brehm first proposed reactance theory in , many studies have explored the remarkable psychological phenomenon of reactance, which.

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Psychological reactance — a theory of freedom and control. A cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation. If it is true that people are generally unaware of freedoms that are threatened by implication, but they nevertheless respond as though those freedoms are really threatened, then their response will appear to be too strong for what has psychooogical to them. Comparing separate process and intertwined models for reactance. Multiple paths from threatened pshchological to resistance to persuasion.

However, this is not always the case. It could be seen as a form of censorship imposed by the private sector on the public, and no matter if the product was not profitable, if that item can be eliminated, will Wheaties be the next to go? Now let us see how implied threats, too, can play a role. In a theoretical overview on reactance, Chadee even proposed that approach motivation is the necessary prerequisite for reactance to emerge.

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Where only one product or service of the desired kind is available, the consumer will have only two freedoms: Reactance and the unwillingness to help others. In two studies they found the best fit for the intertwined model. Thus, reactance is a state possessing a tremendous motivational force that induces undesirable outcomes such as disagreement or devaluation. Communication Research Reports, — Marital partners may perceive threats to their freedoms from their spouses. Energization and goal attractiveness In Pervin L.

Psychological Reactance: Theory and Applications by Jack W. Brehm

My guess is that while some users may have been inconvenienced, the real strength of their response came from the implied threat to all their uses of the library. Examining the role of attitude toward anger. If, for example, I lose or misplace a book, my s to refer to or read that book is threatened or lost, but psychollgical is no effect on any of my other freedoms.


Interestingly, participants low in dispositional reactance showed the best performance if they were primed to work hard.

Understanding Psychological Reactance

The effect of personal relevance and approach-related action expectation on relative left frontal cortical activity. Culture and the self. About 50 years after the theory was first proposed, it is much clearer what reactance is and what role it plays when freedoms are threatened. Furthermore, how do cognition and affect combine in different types of freedom threats?

Interestingly, most of the presented studies viewed reactance primarily as an undesirable factor that has to be eliminated or at least reduced. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, — These findings suggest that psyychological processes in the form of more automatic, impulsive affect-driven versus more cognitive dominated reflective information processing e.

Response to restrictive policies: From this we can draw a couple of lessons about consumer behavior. Toward an understanding of the determinants of anger. During reactance-arousing compared to anger-arousing situations, the middle temporal lobe, the temporal poles, and the gyrus rectus were active. A third reason is that we can inspect specific freedoms to see if there is any logical or psychological relationship between them.

Wirtschaftspsychologie, 35— The implication principle is somewhat analogous to the principles of stimulus and response generalization that come from early research and theories on learning and performance–the work of Clark Hull, Kenneth Spence, and Neal Miller would be examples.

Because this kind of decision is infrequently made, there cannot be many future freedoms threatened by implication. Stereotype reactance at the bargaining table: Results showing that reactance can emerge automatically also come from studies on the implicit activation of reactance.


The effect of coping potential on anger-induced left frontal activity.

Manuscript submitted for publication. All in all, there could be some huge number of freedoms threatened by implication.

Understanding Psychological Reactance

Miron and Brehm proposed that different cultures, such as individualistic and collectivistic, react to different threats and in different ways to restore their freedom. We therefore close with proposing some suggestions for future research.

The influence of different types of threats that rely psychilogical simple cues has also been explored in the context of political reforms. The therapeutic reactance scale: In general, people are convinced that they possess certain freedoms to engage in so-called free behaviors. The intensity of motivation. Rather than attempt a formal analysis around the implication principle, I would like simply to point to a few settings in which an understanding of implications should be important to our understanding of behavior.

Communication Monographs, — Independent raters coded the thoughts as supportive, neutral, or negative. When attempts are made to persuade people by using a forceful message, this message motivates people to present arguments against the persuasive attempt counterarguing. Mood and threat to attitudinal freedom: Theorry is, I believe, the implied threats that make specific losses so motivating. The amount of reactance depends on the importance of the threatened freedom and the perceived magnitude of the threat.

While an implicit activation of psycholgical stereotype that men are better in negotiating led to lower performance in women, an explicit activation led to higher performance in women. Conversion of reactance motives into effortful goal pursuit: Several methods to reduce or prevent reactance have already been tested. Validation of a scale measuring state reactance.