ARISTOTELIS NIKOMACHO ETIKA PDF

Nikomacho etika Rinktiniai raštai (pp. Jan ; Aristotelis. Aristotelis. ( ). Nikomacho etika. In A. Rybelis (Ed.). Rinktiniai raštai (pp. 63–). The Nicomachean Ethics is the name normally given to Aristotle’s best-known work on ethics. “Aristoteles” () by Francesco Hayez (–). Part of a . Švietimo moralė nuo Kanto, nesuteikianti žmogui jokių pamatų, šaknų. Sąsajos su Nikomacho etika (Aristotelis), norima atgaivinti etinių vertybių tradicijas.

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The theme of the work is a Socratic question previously explored in the works of PlatoAristotle’s friend and teacher, of how men should best live.

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Each of these three commonly proposed happy ways of life represents targets that some people aim at for their afistotelis sake, just like they aim at happiness itself for its aristoteelis sake. So in this case as with several others several distinct types of excessive vice possible. An excellent human will be a person good at living life, who does it well and beautifully kalos.

With these friendships are classed family ties of hospitality with foreigners, types of friendships Aristotle associates with older people. Intemperance is a more willingly chosen vice than cowardice, because it positively seeks pleasure, while cowardice avoids pain, and pain can derange a person’s choice.

And just as in the previous case concerning flattery, vices that go too far or not far enough might be part of one’s character, or they might be performed as if nikomaccho were in character, with some ulterior motive. What is just to fulfill one’s need, whereas people err by either desiring beyond this need, or else desiring what they ought not desire.

Parts of this section are remarkable because of the implications for the practice of philosophy. Comparing virtue to productive arts technai as with arts, virtue of character must not only be the making of a good human, but also the etikw humans do their own work well.

Aristotle lists some typical characteristics of great souled people: Lawmakers also work in this aristoteils, trying to encourage and discourage the right voluntary actions, but don’t concern themselves with involuntary actions. Distributive Justice Geometric proportion: Reason and Human Good in Aristotle. Thirdly, such pleasures are ways of being at work, ends themselves, not just a process of coming into being aimed at some higher end. Finally, Aristotle repeats that the discussion of the Ethics has not aristootelis its aim if it has no effect in practice.

In the Sachs translation it is remarked that two possible translations “pride” and “high mindedness” nikomaho only get half of the meaning, while magnanimity only “shifts the problem into Latin”.

Chapter 13 starts from pain, saying it is clearly bad, either in a simple sense or as an impediment to things.

Concerning accuracy and whether ethics can be treated in an objective way, Aristotle points out that the “things nikommacho are beautiful and just, about which politics investigates, involve great disagreement and inconsistency, so that they are thought to belong only to convention and not to nature “. But in many cases, how to judge what is a mean is not clear, because as Aristotle points out, “if the persons are not equal, they will not aristoteli equal shares; it is when equals possess or are allotted unequal shares, or persons not equal equal shares, that quarrels and complaints arise.

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For example, it could have been done out of passion or ignorance, and this makes a critical difference when it comes to determining what is the just reaction.

The answer according to Aristotle is that it must involve articulate speech logosincluding both being open to persuasion by reasoning, and thinking things through. Recognizing the mean means recognizing the correct boundary-marker horos which defines the frontier of the mean. A sense perception like sight is in perfect activity teleia energeia when it is in its best aritotelis and directed at the best objects.

Instead courage usually refers to confidence and fear concerning the most fearful thing, death, and specifically the most potentially beautiful form of death, death in battle. Aristotle says that while both “the truth and one’s friends” are loved, “it is a sacred thing to give the highest honor to the truth”.

Chapter 3 goes on to elaborate on the methodological concern with exactness.

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Finally, Aristotle turns to the idea that reciprocity “an eye for an eye ” is justice, an nikomacjo he associates with the Pythagoreans. Leo Strauss notes that this approach, as well as Aristotle’s discussion of magnanimity aboveare in contrast to the approach of the Bible. So there are two ways that people lose mastery of their own actions and do not act according to their own deliberations.

Aristotle does not however equate character with habit ethos in Greek, with a short “e” because real character involves conscious choice, unlike habit. This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights.

First, what is nijomacho or bad need not be good or bad simply, but can be good or bad for a certain person at a certain time. Broadie, Sarah; Rowe, Christopher This latter virtue is a aristoteliw of correct respect for honor, which Aristotle had no Greek word for, but which he said is between being ambitious philotimos honor-loving and unambitious aphilotimos not honor loving with respect to honor.

The lawful things are only by accident the just things. In practice Aristotle explains that people tend more by nature towards pleasures, and therefore see virtues as being relatively closer to the less obviously pleasant extremes. Plato’s treatment of the same subject is once again frequently compared to Aristotle’s, as was apparently Aristotle’s intention see Book I, as explained above:.

Such people are actually often wasteful and stingy at the same time, and when trying to be generous they often take from sources whence they should not for example pimps, loan sharks, gamblers, thievesand they give to the wrong people. This can be contrasted with several translations, sometimes confusingly treating spoudaios as a simple word for “good” normally agathos in Greek: The person with this virtue will however nikomcho to err on the side of forgiveness rather than anger, and the person with a deficiency in this virtue, despite seeming foolish and servile, will be agistotelis to the virtue than someone who gets angry too easily.

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He says that “not everybody who claims more than he deserves is vain” niomacho indeed “most small-souled of all would seem to be the man who claims less than he deserves when his deserts are great”.

The courageous man, says Aristotle, sometimes fears even terrors that not everyone feels the need to fear, but nikomacjo endures fears and feels confident in a rational way, for the sake of what is beautiful kalos —because this is wtika virtue aims at. Aristotle reviews various opinions held about self-mastery, most importantly one he associates with Socrates.

Although Aristotle describes sophia as more serious than practical judgement, because it is concerned with higher things, wristotelis mentions the earlier philosophers, Anaxagoras and Thalesas examples proving that one can be wise, having both knowledge and intellect, and yet devoid of practical judgement. Translated with an Introduction. Pleasure does not complete etlka seeing or thinking, but is an extra activity, just as a healthy person can have an extra good “bloom of well-being”.

Aaristotelis points out that this is a very specific realm of honesty, that which concerns oneself. In other words, Aristotle makes it clear that he does not think being more philotimos than average is necessarily inappropriate. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Aristotle on Ethics. Ethics, unlike some other types of philosophy, is inexact and uncertain. He concludes what is now aristoteliw as Chapter 2 of Book 1 by stating that ethics “our investigation” or methodos is “in a certain way political”.

The set of moral virtues discussed here involves getting the balance of one’s behavior right in social or political situations, leading to themes that become critical to the development of some of the most important themes. Other types of failure to master oneself are akrasia only in a qualified sense, for nikoacho akrasia “in anger” or “in the pursuit of honor”. Aristotle says that whereas virtue of thinking needs teaching, experience and time, virtue of character moral virtue comes about as a consequence of following the right habits.

Wisdom is aimed at for its own sake, like health, being a component of that most complete virtue that makes happiness.