Henri Bergson ( – ) introduced new life to French philosophy, examining the non-mathematical sciences from a philosophical stance. He introduced. Henri Bergson, Duration and Simultaneity: Bergson and the Einsteinian Universe Time, Duration and Freedom – Bergson’s Critical Move Against Kant. Duration and Simultaneity. Henri Bergson Henri Bergson in 20th Century Philosophy Concepts of Simultaneity: From Antiquity to Einstein and Beyond.

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This paper of Einstein’s seems to be little known: It is therefore quite true that time is measured through the intermediary of motion. If I now open my eyes, I see that my finger is tracing on the sheet of paper a line that is preserved, where all is juxtaposition and no longer succession; this is the unfolded, which is the record of the result of motion, and which will be its symbol as well.

When we look at a flock of sheep, what we notice is that they all look alike. The true purpose of knowledge is to know things deeply, to touch the inner essence of things via a form of empathy: A Subsidiary of Howard W.

Bergson offers a twofold response. Nature has made certain species evolve in such a way that the individuals in these species cannot exist on their own. While the relationship between consciousness and matter instantiated in the instinct of animals is sufficient and well adapted to their survival from the point of view of the specieshumans are not adequately equipped in this respect; hence the necessity of something like intelligence, defined by the ability to make tools.

True pity, therefore, involves not so much fearing pain as desiring it.

We maintain that it could as readily be considered Ein- stein’s and that the theory of relativity was, if anything, meant to bear out the idea of a time common to all things. Guerlac, Suzaane,Thinking in Time: Naturally, duartion, strenuous efforts were made to avoid Michelson’s conclusion.

The first two vuration rejected without assigned reason; the third because, it was said, I had “published it all before. In the eyes of the observer who shares the earth’s motion, the distance of this double journey is therefore However much we may reduce the intensity of our memory, we risk leaving in it some degree of xnd variety and richness of our inner life; we are then preserving the personal, at all events, human simultanfity of memory.


We are going to show that it would still give us the same figure for the speed of light. Presses Universitaires de France, In Creative EvolutionBergson starts out by criticizing mechanism as it applies to the concepts of life and evolution. Yet, we can speak of a recent revitalization of Bergsonism.

But, for Bergson, the real question is: Presses Universitaires de France, As the result of motion, a longer drawn-out, expanded time comes to occupy the spatial interval between two positions of the clock hand. It is there- fore the simultaneity between two instants of two motions outside of us that enables us to measure time; but it is the simultaneity of these moments with moments pricked by them along our inner duration that makes this measurement one of time.

Bergson suggests that the traditional association between the model of space and time is incoherent. As S’ contracts in the direction of its motion, its time expands. Thus, intuition reverses the normal working of intelligence, which is interested and analytic synthesis being only a development of vergson.

Henri Bergson

Since the time that Peter ascribed to Paul was not the time that Paul lived, he called it a phantom, that is, something unreal, because, as he insisted, only what is perceptible is real for example, see p. Why, then, did Einstein not realize that his theory pro- hibited asymmetrical aging? Let us rather speak of propagation in the first and conveyance in the second: For Bergson — and perhaps this is his greatest insight — freedom is mobility.

I can therefore act as if none of my lengths had shrunk, as if my time had not expanded, as if my clocks agreed.

Because of these needs, there is a rigidity to the rules of closed moralities. How do we synchronize two clocks located at different places? More than once in the course of its history it has submitted to a ane of this sort.


The absolute position of the event in space- time corresponds to a function of all four duratiom which is the same for all coordinate systems, and any two events have an absolute separation in space-time though their separations m space and in time vary with the coordinate system.

This is the counterpart of the situation m science, in which mathematics is in the saddle dduration rides physics, so that, for example, Lorentz’ and Einstein’s theories are thought to be identical because they have the same mathe- matical structure.

Henri Bergson and the Perception of Time | Issue 48 | Philosophy Now

We shall see the significance of this later. What will help us understand duratiom image is the idea of my character. It must stand or fall so far as experiment is concerned by the comparison of relatively moving clocks and measuring rods to see whether their readings do, in fact, obey the Lorentz transformation.

Turning back from the habitual use of intelligence for needs, intuition, as we can see now, places us above or below representations. Whether durztion S, adopted as a system of refer- ence, is at absolute rest in the ether, or whether it is at rest solely with respect to every system with which we compare it, in both cases the observer located in S will treat alike the measurements of time annd will be transmitted to him from every system such as S’; in both cases, he will apply Lorentz’ transformation equations to them.

The idea that memories are descending means that true memory in Bergson is progressive.

He was born the year The Origin of Species was published and Creative Evolution adds a vital missing dimension to Darwinian theory. A central contention is that science and philosophy dueation systematically misrepresent the nature of time.