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They reproduce via spores. Phylum Microsporidia is generally included in kingdom Fungi, though its exact relations remain uncertain, [33] and it is considered a protozoan by the International Society of Protistologists [34] see Protistabelow.

Sporophytes produce haploid spores by meiosisthat grow into gametophytes.

Molecular phylogenetic studies conclude that bryophytz are the earliest diverging lineages of the extant land plants. Thus bryophytes disperse by a combination of swimming sperm and spores, in a manner similar to lycophytesferns and other cryptogams. Prothallus gametophytesvascular system. These terms occasionally may be used instead of “monoicous” and “dioicous” to describe bryophyte gametophytes.

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Round cross section, keratin cuticle. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole. Inside the sporangium, haploid spores are produced by meiosis. Lycopodium -like plant Wolf plant.

Bryophytes are gametophyte dominant, meaning that the more prominent, longer-lived plant is the haploid gametophyte. This approach brings some small problems—for instance, ancestral characters common to most members of a phylum may have been lost by some members.

The three bryophyte clades which may be treated as divisions are the Marchantiophyta liverwortsBryophyta mosses and Anthocerotophyta hornworts. Bryophytes antibiotic properties and ability to retain water make them a useful packaging material for vegetables, flowers, and bulbs. Gametophytes produce haploid sperm and eggs which fuse to form diploid zygotes that grow into sporophytes.

An Introduction to Plant Biology 5th ed.

Phylum – Wikipedia

Bryophytes exist in a wide variety of habitats. Jones and Bruophyta Learning. Look up Phylum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. In all other land plants, the polysporangiophytesthe sporophyte is branched and carries many sporangia.


In bryophytes, the sporophyte is a simple unbranched structure with a single spore-forming organ sporangium. Views Read Edit View history. Ribbon worms, Rhynchocoela [15]: The division Pinophyta may be used for all gymnosperms i.


Characteristics bryophyyta bryophytes make them useful to the environment. Fertilized eggs become zygotes, which develop into sporophyte embryos inside the archegonia.

Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition. A high level taxonomic rank for organisms sharing a similar body plan.

Accordion -like extensible thorax. Ephemeral unbranched sporophytesno vascular system. EntomophthoromycotinaKickxellomycotinaMucoromycotinaand Zoopagomycotina.

Monoicous plants are necessarily bisexual or hermaphroditicmeaning that the same plant has both sexes. Depending on the specific plant texture, bryophytes have been shown to help improve the water retention and air space within soil.

Plant Systematics and Evolution. Ball of yarn fungus [15]: The Catalogue of Life includes Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta in kingdom Plantae, [39] but other systems consider these phyla part of Protista.

British Mosses and Liverworts 3rd ed. Compared to other living land plants, they lack vascular tissue containing lignin and branched sporophytes bearing multiple sporangia. Small base fungus [15]: