A gelastic seizure, also known as “gelastic epilepsy”, is a rare type of seizure that involves a sudden burst of energy, usually in the form of laughing or crying. Information regarding gelastic epilepsy, a rare form of epilepsy that involves laughter or crying and is more common in boys than girls. What is Gelastic Epilepsy? Gelastic epilepsy refers to a type of epilepsy in which the seizures are ‘gelastic’, gelastikos being the Greek word for laughter.
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Stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation for hypothalamic hamartoma with intractable gelastic seizures. Soni Hospital, Jaipur, India. The clinical spectrum and natural history of gelastic epilepsy-hypothalamic hamartoma syndrome. Imaging and radiological-pathological correlation in histologically proven cases of focal cortical dysplasia and other glial and neuronoglial malformative lesions in adults.
For Permissions, please email: At times, older children might complain of a warning or aura beforehand, although they are not always able to describe exactly what the warning is like. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
It has been demonstrated that the behavioral and motor manifestations constituting the nongelastic component and the complex partial seizures in these patients represent spread of seizure activity from the HH to specific frontal, temporal or other cortical regions Leal et al Epilepsy in hypothalamic hamartoma: The seizures may include atonic or tonic-clonic seizures.
Homma and colleagues recently published a series of five patients with small HHs and intractable GS. The pattern of GS may change over time, especially when patients become adults. The anti-epileptic drugs AEDs used to treat focal seizures may also be effective in treating gelastic epilepsy. This finding is also consistent with the available evidence from recent semiological studies in patients with gelastic epilepsy Oehl et al. Gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartomas: The relationship between magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical manifestations geladtic hypothalamic hamartoma.
Currently the most effective surgical approach is the trancallosal anterior interforniceal approach, however newer approaches including the endoscopic and other treatment such as radiosurgery and gamma knife epi,epsy been used with success.
January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Typically this occurs between the ages of 4 to 10 years and involves the presence of multiple types of seizures, including complex partial seizures with or without secondary generalization, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and drop attacks Brandberg et al ; Striano et al Among the identified cases, 41 patients were female and 59 were male Table 1.
Electrophysiological, radiological, and pathophysiological studies have confirmed the intrinsic epileptogenicity of the hypothalamic hamartoma. Hypothalamic hamartomas and ictal laughter: Some patients describe an urge to laugh that sometimes can be suppressed Sturm et al Gelastic and other types of seizures are often times very hard to control. Of note, the mean duration of disease did not vary in a statistically significant way in terms of Delalande type or the volume of lesions, implying that the lesions remain relatively stable in size over time.
Gelastic Epilepsy: Signs and Information – Disabled World
If a child also has precocious puberty, this may be treated with hormones, or hormone-like medications. The size of the HH is an important criterion to select the patient, as better seizure control has been found in small lesions. Despite the use of higher dose and several combinations of antiepileptic drugs AEDsseizure freedom or good seizure control is rarely achieved in this group of patients Harvey and Freeman Electrophysiological properties and subunit composition of GABAA receptors in patients with gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma.
Intractable gelastic seizures during infancy: Different surgical procedures have been attempted to control GS in patients with HHs. Hypothalamic hamartoma in adults.
If there is evidence of this, the diagnosis takes much less time. Seizures that occur in infancy may include bursts of cooing, respirations, giggling, and smiling. Currently it is recognized that the best treatment in these patients is the ablation of the HH. Gelastic seizures in a child with focal gelsstic dysplasia of the cingulate gyrus.
Rosenfeld et al Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Signs More Usually Recognized with Focal Seizures Altered awareness Eye and head gelxstic to one side or the other ‘Automatisms,’ such as mumbling, lip-smacking, or hand fidgeting The signs may last for a period of seconds to as long as a number of minutes and then cease.
Seizures may begin at any age but in the setting of hypothalamic Hamartoma usually before three or four years of age. Gascon and Lombroso also suggested the importance of diencephalic lesions in many cases as a cause of the gelastic seizures GS.
Role of the hypothalamic hamartoma in the genesis of gelastic fits a video-stereo-EEG study. Other cases in the cingulate region have been described before McConachie and King BrainVolumeIssue 10, 1 OctoberPages —, https: Hypothalamic gelatic and epilepsy: GS are epileptic events characterized by bouts of laughter Gascon and Lombroso Also known as “laughing” seizures, their association with hypothalamic hamartomas is well known in children and adults; however other structural causes have also been implicated.
Regis et al Gelaztic vagal nerve stimulation in children with refractory epilepsy. After some years of evolution, electrographic changes consistent with lobar involvement may become apparent Freeman et al a.