This is a very liberal Galician-Portuguese translation of the manuscript a from the Germanische Nationalmuseum Nuremberg. It is authored by Diniz. Codex a of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg (also known as Hs. a, GNM a, Nürnberger Handschrift GNM a) is a. The codex Nürnberger Handschrift GNM a ( folia) is a manuscript dating from around , preserved today in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in.

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For Liechtenauer has a particular proverb: The original manuscript, created 327a the late 14th and early 15th centuries, is one of the earliest texts collecting the Kunst des Fechtens tradition of semi-legendary master Johannes Liechtenauer.

Nürnberger Handschrift GNM 3227a

And recognise 3227w hardening thusly—when the edge is blue, then it has rightly hardened. The withdrawal reflex may also change the original direction of movement of the opponent. Schiessen – essentials of the longsword according to GNM a.

You shall also wind well and turn your point against the opponent’s chest every time, so that he must discourage himself. Alchemy covers several philosophical traditions spanning some four millennia and three continents and these traditions general penchant for cryptic and symbolic language makes it hard to trace their mutual influences and genetic relationships.

Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of AD. Bob Foster “The Infantry: Because they come from the over-hews and the under-hews. The way I understand this passage, it advocates starting attacks — be it strikes or thrusts — by extending the point early on shot 7.


Even a brief look at the instances of schiessen being used in GNM a makes it clear that it has nothing to do with actually throwing the sword — which would be a viable hypothesis to start with considering that other contemporary fight books contain 3227 on using the sword like a javelin e.

For one would prefer to deliver just that, because that same legitimate fencing will not have handsome and painstaking parries nor wide fencing-around. So that your hair does not fall out, mix some burned flax seed with oil and spread the skin with it. That is, he begins to hew while the opponent defends himself and wards himself of the fore-strike, be it hew or stab, so shall he seek out other applications and plays.

Hs. GnM a transcription? – HEMA Forums:

Its process of production, Wootz steel, was exported before the 4th century BC to ancient China, Africa, archaeological evidence of cast iron appears in 5th century BC China. Improved versions were submitted by Lindholm and Hagedorn Technology — The dawn of Western alchemy is sometimes associated with that of metallurgy, Many writings were lost when the emperor Diocletian ordered the burning of alchemical books after suppressing a revolt in Alexandria 9. The Diets of Nuremberg were an important part of the structure of the empire.

And that one comes effortlessly as opposed to all those because the fore-strike is a great advantage of this fencing as you will hear it hereafter in the text where Liechtenauer names just five hews with other plays that are sufficient for earnest fencing and teaches it according to the correct art, conducted straight and direct toward the closest and surest as it simply can approach and leaves all of the confusing work and new found hews foolishly considered by the illegitimate masters that nevertheless thoroughly depart from his art.


Manuscript copying of books continued for a least a century, as printing remained expensive, private or government documents remained hand-written until the invention of the typewriter in the late 19th century.

You are not currently logged in. And do the same with the other hand. In that they proceed from 3227w over and under hangings, and from there one may surely bring applications.

Contemporary use of long-sword or 3227x only resurfaced in the s in the context of reconstruction of the German school of fencing, translating the German langes schwert, the term hand-and-a-half sword is relatively modern. Significance of many fighting techniques changes, if we take into account that the withdrawal reflex may cause a limb or even torso to withdraw.

On top of that, connecting with the point before making a step has two more benefits. If he wards it so that he leads off and presses-out your point with his sword, then let your point sink from the same side under his sword around it to the other side, not wide around, rather, below on his sword so you may keep close and 327a there drive-in quite swiftly above the hilt with a good, complete stab and when you feel that you hit, fully pursue.

But if the opponent remains on the sword; with that, as it is coming onto his sword with his warding and defending [himself from] the fencer and it has drawn itself out like this such that the fencer is remaining with him on the sword and has not yet executed the after-strike, so shall the fencer wind up [21] and stay with him like this on the sword and shall quite gn, note and feel whether the opponent is weak or strong on the sword.

If the dagger, or the short knife that is used in duelling, is turned against you, wind it from your opponent with an inverse grip of your left hand. The second mention is contained in the rhymed section introducing general tactical advice 29v and indicates that an opponent using long and wide attacks greiffet her weite ader lenge an can be defeated with schiessen das schissen gesigt im an.

Taking the reflexes of the body into consideration may also increase efficiency of all attacks intended to break guards 32277a stances. But if he remains with you on the sword, then always test and note whether he is soft or hard on the sword. Beringois of the Ms. Admittedly, thrusting into a combination started by the opponent may seem a double-hit sporty? After Pol’s death inhis library, presumably including this manuscript, passed to Innichen Abbey in South Tyrol.

Therefore, if we assumed that the two terms are exact synonyms, we would in fact have six more instances of schiessen in the fight book, since werfen appears separately across the glossae. Stay tuned for the announcement of the revised content!


Most notably, it is the earliest manuscript dealing with the art of fencing with the long sword of Johannes Liechtenauer which remained predominant in the German school of swordsmanship for two centuries to come. Similarly to them, I believe that schiessen can be executed as a thrust as well as a cut depending on the distance from the target shots 24 and And then by putting one leg in front you throw him over it.

For if a sword is large and heavy, so must the pommel also be accordingly heavy, just like a scale. For the purposes of this compilation, as in philology, a codex refers to a manuscript book published from the late Antiquity period through the Middle Ages. Keith, I’d be more than happy to share the thesis, with the caveat that it’s in Dutch.

Also know when one will earnestly fence, they contemplate a polished play, whichever he wishes that is complete and 3227aa there and earnestly internalize that and keep it in his intent and spirit. In Europe, the creation of a stone was variously connected with all of these projects.

Thank you for mentioning my translation of the that mettalurgical part 11rr as may be found at Wiktenauer. If you have understood this, he cannot come to strikes. Having stated my opinion on the value 32277a GNM a as a fight book, I freely admit that translating its contents into motion is not an easy task.

Gunpowder was widely used to fill artillery shells and in mining and civil engineering to blast rock until the half of the 19th century. Quite the contrary, as soon as the point has been extended, or in some cases even when it is still being extended, is precisely when adding footwork is usually desirable. If you execute otherwise according to the five words, this dictum goes entirely against that and all of [that] fencing often results in a peasant slaying a master, because he is brave and won the fore-strike according to this precept.

Halbschwert against Mordstreich in the Codex Wallerstein Plate Inthe city, occupied by the forces of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was besieged by the army of Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein, the city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th century, when it grew as an industrial centre 4. It remains identifiable as a type during the period of about to and it remained in use as a weapon of war intended for wielders wearing full plate armour either on foot or on horseback, throughout the late medieval period.

When he comes running at you so see to it that you bump him off from you to both sides. Its Administrative Board is chaired by Prof.