In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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It will simulate the mechanisms and models, carry out the procedures, and display the results to the operator.

Business situations usually move slowly enough that there is time for briefings and conferences. Memory components and organization? See disclaimer and privacy statement. Displays seem to be in a somewhat better state than controls.

A multidisciplinary study group, examining future research and development problems of the Air Force, estimated that it would be before developments in artificial intelligence make it possible for machines alone to do much thinking or problem solving of military significance.

The large display should be supplemented, according to most of those who have thought about the problem, by individual display-control units. The general purpose machine that we stare into and fervently punch commands into incessantly through the day gives us the news, entertains us, keeps us in touch with others, and tells us the time of day.

The Associated Press has no qualms about such things, though. Computing machines will do the routinizable work that must be done to prepare the way for insights and decisions in technical and scientific thinking. The argument is introduced into the memory first, one character at a time, starting at a standard initial register. People directly linked to smart machines can perhaps function better than people acting without such support. The consideration that holds back such an effort, apparently, is that the effort would produce nothing that would be of great value in the context of existing computers.


In one sense of course, any man-made system is intended to help man, to help a man or men outside the system.

J. C. R. Licklider

In general, it will carry out the routinizable, clerical operations that fill the intervals between decisions. In some ways it is a logical extension of our past decision support research, in other ways the prospect of a tightly linked relationship of a human being with a “smart” computing machine is frightening.

He said that computers would have to improve significantly before real man-computer symbiosis could take place. Cooper, “Minimal rules for synthesizing speech,” J. Parasitism is a non-mutual, often harmful, symbiotic relationship.

This is one of several operator-team problems in need of careful study. While the scenario in the science fiction action film The Matrix is more extreme than most of us desire or want, we as decision scientists must decide how far we want to progress in creating a real human-computer symbiosis.

At the end of the argument is a special “end-of-argument” marker. This page was last edited on 21 Novemberat To think in interaction with a computer in the same way that you think with a colleague whose competence supplements your own will require much tighter coupling between man and machine than is suggested by the example and than is possible today.

Many computers plot graphs on oscilloscope screens, and a few take advantage of the remarkable capabilities, graphical and symbolic, of the charactron display tube. Several designers are convinced that displays with the desired characteristics can be constructed with the aid of flashing lights and time-sharing viewing screens based on the light-valve principle.

Moreover, my choices of what to attempt and what not to attempt were determined to an embarrassingly great extent by considerations of clerical feasibility, not intellectual capability. AI may have some limitations of its own.


J. C. R. Licklider – Wikiquote

Most of the remainder seems to be wrapped up in the problem of pattern recognition within the storage mechanism or medium. That constitutes a challenging problem.

That compound question is asked whenever sophisticated data-processing systems are discussed. The work shows the following contents: Other problems simply cannot be formulated without computing-machine aid.

Will such a symbiosis be beneficial to human kind or harmful? That development would have a revolutionary effect upon the design of computers.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. For real-time interaction on a truly symbiotic level, however, a vocabulary of about words, e. We may in due course see a serious effort to develop computer programs that can be connected together like the words and phrases of speech to do whatever computation or control is required at the moment. Licklider begins a comparison between the so-called genotypic similarities between humans and computers, in the seventh passage of this part, with a definition of men as:.

Several hours of calculating were required to get the data into comparable form. The attractive features of the scheme are these: True, they usually know something about symbiosiw in which to travel or lines along which to work, but few start out with precisely formulated itineraries. Roberts, “Computer versus chess-player,” Scientific Americanvol.