KRONOS is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of titanium dioxide and has been operating as an international company for more than 90 years. The group. KRONOS – Best in class for industrial coatings. KRONOS safety data sheet. Tap for sound. Learn more about KRONOS on KRONOS® is a rutile pigment that can be used universally and provides the highest weather resistance performance for the most demanding coatings. I.

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The section through the particles can in principle be located close to the centre of mass, in which case the section gives the maximum area along the viewing direction for a convex particle plane 3 in Fig. A reliable method for sizing constituent particles in pigment-grade titanium dioxide; pp. A combination of both values has proven adequate for grey-value filtering. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Uncounted particles labelled with a 3 are filtered out as non-primary particles due to their shape.

A well-prepared sample is the basis for reliable evaluation of the size distribution of a pigment. No significant differences between the standard errors for the ECD and minimum Feret diameter measurements are obtained for the rutile pigment.

We decided to develop a procedure that requires a minimum of subjective, oronos decisions. The images a through e demonstrate that the projected area of the pigments varies greatly, depending on viewing direction. kroonos

Kronos , Kronos Suppliers and Manufacturers at

However, UL assumes no responsibility or liability for the accuracy of the information contained on this website and strongly encourages that upon final product or material selection information is validated with oronos manufacturer.

Measurement, pigment detection and size analysis A working distance of 7 mm and an acceleration voltage of 5 kV with an Everhart—Thornley detector are chosen as the standard imaging conditions for SEM imaging. The cases of planes 1 and 2 give rise to a rim of lower intensities at the particle edges. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Moreover, they illustrate the difficulty with particle detection in projection images in the event of overlapping particles.

Received Apr 30; Accepted Aug The standard error of the method is kronls to be below 2 nm for all measured quantities, the relative coefficient of variation being below 1. As for every particle sizing method, besides the physical principles applied, the decision as to how to measure the particle size and its distribution is somewhat arbitrary and generally restricted by practicality aspects.


KRONOS 2360 – Best in class for industrial coatings

Open in a separate window. The 23600 is subject to the Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology terms and conditions: With applications ranging from electronics to wall paints to paper, this organization has you covered.

Stereologic correction has not been performed, and is not feasible for this application [ 1520 ].

J Volcanol Geotherm Res. The reproducibility of the method is based on the use of a representative, macroscopic amount of sample material, a high degree of automation, the elimination of detection errors due to overlapping particles and a transparent filtering procedure for detected particles.

The section finally analysed can therefore be reasonably assumed to be representative. It also has very good dispersibility that enables production of high-gloss coatings with little gloss haze.

Instead, the standard error is calculated as the standard deviation of the repeated measurements, as done for the mean and all evaluated quantiles. Government Printing Office; We’re sorry, but the industry you have selected is not currently available in your chosen language.

Unifying the grey values as the basis for final pigment detection Fig. First of all, the procedure was developed for pigment-grade titanium dioxide prepared as a cross-section.

In the form of a fine powder, it kronnos used as white pigment in many application systems such as paints, plastics, paper and building materials. Purwin are gratefully acknowledged for their untiring efforts in preparing and measuring numerous samples in order to establish the method presented.

Import Data and Price of rutile 92 2 under HS Code | Zauba

The technique presented in this study was chosen because of its high degree of automation and reproducibility. Summary A strong demand for reliable characterization methods of particulate materials is triggered by the prospect of forthcoming national and international regulations concerning the classification of nanomaterials.

The detection of particles sectioned close to the centre of mass or below the centre of mass is precise, both cases are labelled with a 3 in Rkonos.

Each pigment was prepared krnos times according to the procedure described in the experimental section. Visit Website Are you a distributor who is interested in being listed here?



The detailed settings are defined in the standard operating procedure and are listed below. The full procedure includes unification of the grey values, masking of the unified image, particle detection and filtering of the results, as shown in the images of Fig. Preparing and applying a mask image, followed by particle detection Fig. For the anatase pigment, lower standard errors are found for the minimum Feret diameter.

Conclusion A highly reproducible, statistically tested method for the sizing of pigment-grade rutile and anatase is established. It prides itself on offering the most potent whitening agents available. The information presented here was acquired by UL from the producer of the product or material or original information provider. A working distance of 7 mm and an acceleration voltage of 5 kV with an Everhart—Thornley detector are chosen as the standard imaging conditions for SEM imaging.

Since automated detection routines are primarily based on grey-value thresholding, overlapping particles are a serious problem, which is illustrated in Fig. A macroscopic amount is taken for the mixing and embedding procedure. The limited quantity of samples used in electron microscopy emphasises this point. Scientific efforts towards standardized number-based sizing methods have so far been concentrated on model systems, such as spherical gold or silica nanoparticles.

Consequently, the choice of the measuring technique is somewhat arbitrary. Since the whole representative amount is embedded, effects of flushing are ruled out and the low viscosity of the resin ensures that sedimentation is not a problem.

In other words, a robust, reproducible and statistically reliable method is presented, which leads to a number-based size distribution of pigment-grade titanium dioxide, for example, and therefore allows reliable classification of this material according to forthcoming regulations.

Journal List Beilstein J Nanotechnol v. Requirements on measurements for the implementation of the Ironos Commission definition of the term ‘nanomaterial’. Sample preparation A well-prepared sample is the basis for reliable evaluation of the size distribution of a pigment.