Exclusion principle and theLandauer-Buttiker formalism The Landauer-Buttiker formalism has been very successful in describingelectronic. Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Calculation of the electronic current flowing through a system due to application of external bias voltage is one of the most difficult. Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Examples. Farkas Dániel Gergely. Msc physics student. 1. Contents. Difference of potencials; Difference of temperatures.

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Retrieved from ” https: In terms of scattering mechanisms, optical phonon emission normally dominates, depending on the material and transport conditions.

Ballistic conduction is typically observed in quasi-1D structures, such as carbon nanotubes or silicon nanowiresbecause of extreme size quantization effects in these materials. The electron alters its motion only upon collision with the walls.

Ballistic conduction

Some kinds of scattering can only cause a change in electron direction, others can cause energy loss. Electrical contacts resulting in ballistic electron conduction are known as Sharvin Contacts. Ballistic conduction is the unimpeded flow of charge, or energy-carrying particles, over relatively long distances in a material. Thus, ballistic transport in a material is determined by how ballistically conductive that material is.

Ballistic conduction is not limited to electrons or holes but can also apply to phonons. The specific problem is: Articles needing cleanup from March All pages needing cleanup Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from March Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from March All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from June Articles with unsourced statements from February For the 1D graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor GNR-FET on the right where the channel is assumed to be ballisticthe current from A to B, given by the Boltzmann transport equationis.


Ballistic thermal transport has been observed in multiple materials systems [8]. For example, ballistic transport can be observed in a metal nanowire: The size and distribution of these contact spots is governed by the topological structures of the contacting surfaces forming the electrical contact.

In particular, for surfaces with high fractal dimension contact spots may be very small. Ballistic transport is observed when the mean free path of the electron is much longer than landuaer dimension of the medium through which the electron travels. This page was last edited on 19 Decemberat From the buttjker point of view, stochastic not oriented movement of electrons is useless even if they carry the same energy — they move thermally.

Such a transport lqndauer has been found to depend on the nanoribbon edge structure and the electron energy. Ballistic electrons behave like light in a waveguide or a high-quality optical assembly. It is often incorrectly thought that Si nanowires are quantum confined ballistic conductors. A ballistic conductor would stop conducting if the driving force is turned off, whereas in a superconductor current would continue to flow after the driving supply is disconnected.

Since the contacts and the GNR channel are connected by leads, the transmission probability is smaller at contacts A and B. The widely encountered phenomenon of electrical contact resistance or ECR, arises as an electric current flowing through a rough interface is restricted to a limited number of contact spots.


There are major differences between carbon nanotubes which are hollow and Si nanowires which are solid.

Phys. Rev. B 45, () – Exclusion principle and the Landauer-B\”uttiker formalism

Formalis are also other scattering mechanisms which apply to different carriers that are not considered here e. For a given particle, a mean free path can be described as being the average length that the electron can travel freely, i. Views Read Edit Fformalism history. Different materials have different scattering probabilities which cause different incoherence rates stochasticity.

Electrons which undergo inelastic interaction are then similar to non-monochromatic light. Like monochromatic light passing through milk, electrons undergo elastic interactions.

March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Buthiker dominant scattering mechanism at room temperature is that of electrons emitting optical phonons. Their ballisticity is nearly 0. Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems. For example, electrons in carbon nanotubes have two intervalley modes and two spin modes.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Over a limited distance, the electron wave function will remain coherent.

Ballistic conduction – Wikipedia

Transport becomes statistical and stochastic. If the electrons undergo inelastic interactions too, they lose energy and the result is a second mechanism of resistance. The contacts have a multiplicity of modes due to their larger size in comparison to the channel.

Nanoelectronics Charge carriers Mesoscopic physics.