Alan Cruse’s book is published as part of a series of thematic glossaries devoted to different fields of This volume is concerned with two disciplines: semantics and pragmatics. 96), one would also expect to find “lexicography” and “lexicon” . consist of more than one lexical constituent; second that it should be a single minimal semantic constituent’ (Cruse ). ‘The principle of idiom is that a. Lexical semantics Lexical semantics studies the meanings of words; the focus here The account given here largely follows that given in Cruse ().

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Syntagmatic Semantic Relations ; The discussion continues with an outline of prototype theory, the currently dominant approach to natural conceptual categories, and its rele- vance for the study of word meanings.

Lexical Semantics by D. Alan Cruse

To ask other readers questions about Lexical Semanticsplease sign up. Tao marked it as to-read Aug 16, As a result, the signal picked up by the receiver the received signal is never precisely the same as the transmitted signal.

Con- sider a case where John has in front of him a box of coloured disks, in which 30 Meaning in language all the red disks are round in shape, and all the green disks are square. You are surprised said by hearer ; He was surprised said at lexival later time. Here we take a fairly naive view.

Chapter 2 introduces a set of fundamental conceptual tools, mostly drawn from the field of logic, which, because of their wide currency in discussions of semantic matters, constitute indispensable background knowledge for a study of meaning in language. You’re not leaving, surely? This red paint is green. As the signal travels from sender to receiver, it alters in various ways, through distor- tion, interference from irrelevant stimuli or loss through fading.


This volume is concerned with two disciplines: A is taller than B and B is shorter than A. Lexjcal is defined here so as to exclude identity; it can be defined smantics as to include identity. The cat sat on the mat. In interactive types of combination, the meaning of at least one constituent is radically modified. However, there is a crucial difference: If a relation is asymmetric, then if A stands in the relation to B, B cannot stand in the same relation to A.

Lexical Semantics

The wasp is alive. This, too, is sometimes called the reference of the word cat.

For this reason, lexical semantics perhaps provides the easiest access route into the mysteries of semantics in general, and this is one reason why it has been given a prominent place in this book, and why it comes early. Quickly, conceal in the wardrobe! Each elementary sign is a stable symbolic associ- ation between a meaning and a form phonetic or graphic ; elementary signs may combine together in a rule-governed way to form complex signs which convey correspondingly complex meanings.

It’s a babyl Isn’t he lovely?

The final form of the text was significantly influenced by constructive com- ments on a draft by Jim Miller of the University of Edinburgh, an anonymous American reviewer, and John Davey of Oxford University Press, although, of course, full responsibility for remaining imperfections lies with myself. The relations described in this section have an important role in the analysis of meaning relations between words, as we shall see in later lexicsl.

Contextual Variability of Word Meaning ; 6. Davis Steven and Gillon Brendan S. This has many manifestations, which can only be briefly illustrated here. This incorporates three separate claims: John injured his finger is more specific than John injured his hand. I’ve cleared the table. For instance, one would not wish to say that large and huge differ in quality: A similar elementary treatment, but with more practical exercises, will be found in Hurford and Heasley Chapter 10 looks at larger groupings of words— word fields — mainly structured by the sense relations examined in the previous two chap- ters.


Alan Cruse, A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics

The prisoner was killed, b. This observation presumably provides a clue to the role of meaning in word recognition to the best of my knowledge it is still a puzzle. Here there is a sense of ill-matched meanings clashing, giving rise to paradox, contradiction, a need to look for figurative readings interpretability varies. X is an animal. Would we be prepared to apply the term lexicao to such a man?

There exists at least one individual x such that x is a man and x sneezed. In ordinary conversation, this involves a process of linguistic encoding, that is. As far as seman- tic theories are concerned, I have been unashamedly eclectic, adopting what- ever approach to a particular problem seems genuinely to shed light on it.

It’s Monday today, false answer A: Love is a many-splendoured thing. Jul 26, Gregory rated it liked it. The dog crusf is not. In this case the items which remove the anomaly have nothing in com- mon semantically, and the anomaly of 4 can hence be diagnosed as grammatical. Ray JackendoffLanguage, Consciousness, Culture.